Oldenlandia corymbosa
[Two-flowered Oldenlandia, Flat-top Mille Graines, Diamond Flower]

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Close-up views:

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The seeds of this plant is very tiny. The fruit is presented as a capsule, probably having 2 compartments or cells. Each cell housed numerous tiny seeds as described by the PIER website: "Seeds numerous per cell, angular, ca. 0.25 mm long".

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For a short while, I had mistaken the following structures found in the dried fruits as its seeds. They were probably just the leftover of the seed holders in the fruits.

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There were 3 reports on the germinating conditions of the seeds. All of them were written by the same authors.

References:

(1) Corbineau F, Come D. Effect of temperature, oxygen, and gibberellic acid on the development of photosensitivity in Oldenlandia corymbosa L. seeds during their incubation in darkness. Plant Physiol 1985;79(2):411-414. | Read Article |

(2) Corbineau F, Come D. Effect of the intensity and duration of light at various temperatures on the germination of Oldenlandia corymbosa L. seeds. Plant Physiol 1982;70(5):1518-1520. | Read Article |

(3) Corbineau F, Come D. Some particularities of the germination of Oldenlandia corymbosa L. seeds (tropical Rubiaceae). Israel J Bot 1980;29(1-4):157-167.

The root system: one from a young plant and the other from a more mature plant.

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POTENTIAL MEDICINAL VALUES

The herb has been touted to be useful in the treatment of many diseases and illnesses such as viral infection, cancer, acne, hepatitis, eye diseases, skin aliments and bleeding. However, all its healing properties are inferred from experiments done in the laboratory. So far. I have not seen any formal report on its healing effect when used in human.

The Chinese name, Bai Hua She She Cao (白花蛇舌草), was generally refer to a few similar-looking Oldenlandia species by folks who are not familiar with this plant. Strictly speaking, this Chinese name should be referring to Oldenlandia diffusa. In Taiwan, the local language term used is "Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Cao". Again, this term should be referring to Oldenlandia diffusa. The Chinese name for Oldenlandia corymbosa is Shui Xian Cao (水线草). Pictures of the plant shown in some website peddling its medicinal value can be quite confusing between these 2 species. Some publications still used the synonym, Hedyotis corymbosa, instead of the accepted botanical name Oldenlandia corymbosa.

Together with 7 other plants, this herb has been shown to induce uterine contract in rat and was use by women in Tanzania to induced abortion [1-2]. It is probably not advisable to use it in pregnant women.

References:

[1] Rasch V, Sørensen PH, Wang AR, Tibazarwa F, Jäger AK. Unsafe abortion in rural Tanzania – the use of traditional medicine from a patient and a provider perspective. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014;14:419. | Read Article |

[2] Nikolajsen T, Nielsen F, Rasch V, Sørensen PH, Ismail F, Kristiansen U, Jäger AK. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;137(1):921-925.

Below is a list of reports on its potential medicinal uses:

Year
Reference / Source
Potential Medicinal Values
2015
Gajakosh AM, Jayaraj M. Phytochemical and pharmacognostic investigation on Oldenlandia corymbosa (l.) Lamk. an important hepatoprotective medicinal plant. Int J Current Res 2015;7(7):17665-17669. | Read Article |
Hepatoprotective
2015
Varshney P, Suresh S. Pharmacognostical study of two varieties of Parpataka (Oldenlandia corymbosa & Fumaria indica). Int Ayurvedic Med J 2015;3(9):2747-2753. | Read Article |
2015
Moniruzzaman M, Ferdous A, Irin S. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of ethanol extract of Hedyotis corymbosa Linn. whole plant in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;161:82-85.
Analgesic
2015
Selvan PS, Vellavan S, Sagunthala P, Prakash N, Subramanian S. Analysis of phytochemical component and nutrients component in ethanol extracted Oldenlandia corymbosa. World J Pharm Res 2015;4(7):1960-1967. | Read Article |
Antioxidant
2014
Sivapraksam SSK, Karunakaran K, Subburaya U, Kuppusamy S, Subashini TS. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Hedyotis corymbosa Linn. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2014;26(1);320-324. | Read Article |
2014
Fatema UK, Hossain MS. Analgesic effect of ethanol extract of Hedyotis corymbosa L. whole plant. Int Res J Pharm 2014;5(1):21-24. | Read Article |
Analgesic
2014
Sarmah P, Sarma A, Kalita A, Kashyap D, Choudhury SS. Nutraceutical properties and antioxidant activity of Oldenlandia corymbosa L. found in brahmaputra valley agro-climatic conditions. World J Pharmacy Pharm Sci 2014;3(9):586-592. | Read Article |
Antioxidant
2014
Patel T, Jain V, Rajesh Dodia R. Oldenlandia corymbosa L.: A Phytopharmacological review. Int J Phytopharm 2014;4(3):79-82.
2014
Hussain AZ, Kumaresan S. GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial evaluation of Oldenlandia corymbosa. J Environ Nanotechnol 2014;3(2):161-167.
Antimicrobial
2013
Hussain AZ, Kumaresan S. Phytochemical and antimicrobial evaluation of Oldenlandia corymbosa. Asian J Plant Sci Res 2013;3(4):155-158. | Read Article |
Antimicrobial
2013
Agrawal SK, Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Oldenlandia corymbosa (L). Int J Res Dev Pharm Life Sci 2013;2(2):363-367. | Read Article |
Antiulcer
2012
Pandey K, Sharma PK, Dudhe R. Anticancer Activity of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn and Oldenlandia corymbosa Lam by Srb Method. Open Access Sci Reports 2012;1:325. | Read Article |
Antitumour
2012
Gupta RK, Singh RK, Swain SR, Hussain T, Rao CV. Anti-hepatotoxic potential of Hedyotis corymbosa against D-galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in experimental rodents. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2(3 Suppl):S1542-S1547. | Read Article |
Hepatoprotective
2012
Hazarika N, Singh P, Hussain A, Das S. Phenolics content and antioxidant activity of crude extract of Oldenlandia corymbosa and Bryophyllum pinnatum. RJPBCS 2012;3(2);297-303. | Read Article |
Antioxidant
2012
Yue GG, Kin-Ming Lee J, Cheng L, Chung-Lap Chan B, Jiang L, Fung KP, Leung PC, Bik-San Lau C. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in human hepatoma cells by hedyotiscone A, a compound isolated from Hedyotis corymbosa. Xenobiotica. 2012;42(6):562-70.
Hepatoprotective
2011
Endrini S. Antioxidant activity and anticarcinogenic properties of "rumput mutiara" {Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.} and "pohpohan" {Pilea trinervia (Roxb.) Wight}. J Med Plants Res 2011;5(16):3715-3718. | Read Article |
Antioxidant
2011
You BJ, Wu YC, Wu CY, Bao BY, Chen MY, Chang YH, Lee HZ. Proteomics displays cytoskeletal proteins and chaperones involvement in Hedyotis corymbosa-induced photokilling in skin cancer cells. Exp Dermatol 2011;20(8):653-658.
Antitumour
2011
Sun YL, Wang D, Yeom MH, Kim DH, Kim HG, Hong SK. Molecular identification of medicinal herbs, Oldenlandia diffusa and Oldenlandia corymbosa based on nrDNA ITS region sequence. J Plant Biotech 2011;38(4):301-307.
2011
Maji HS, Maji S, Bhar K, Chandra J, Baral M, Chakraborty P, Dastidar SG. Anthelmintic, free-radical scavenging property and potent antibacterial activity of flavonoid fraction isolated from the whole plant of Oldenlandia corymbosa L. Int J Res Pharma Biomed Sci 2011;5(1):43-48.
Anthelmintic ; Antioxidant ; Antibacterial
2010
Sasikumar JM, Maheshu V, Aseervatham GS, Darsini DT. In vitro antioxidant activity of Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. aerial parts. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2010;47(1):49-52. | Read Article |
Antioxidant
2010
Sultana T, Rashid MA, Ali MA, Mahmood SF. Hepatoprotective and Antibacterial Activity of Ursolic Acid Extracted from Hedyotis corymbosa L. Bangladesh J Sci Ind Res 2010;45(1):27-34. | Read Article |
Hepatoprotective ; Antibacterial
2009
Rathi MA, Pearl DLA, Sasikumar JM, Gopalkrishnan VK, Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Hedyotis corymbosa on perchloroethylene induced rats, Pharmacologyonline 2009;3:230-239. | Read Article |
Hepatoprotective
2009
Chimkode R, Patil MB, Jalapure S, Pasha TY, Sarka S. A study of hepatoprotective activity of Hedyotis corymbosa. Linn, in albino rats. Anc Sci Life. 2009;28(4):32-35. | Read Article |
Hepatoprotective
2009
Mishra K, Dash AP, Swain BK, Dey N. Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin. Malar J 2009;8:26. | Read Article |
Antiviral
2009
Haryanti S, Junedi S, Meiyanto E. Ethanolic extract of Hedyotis corymbosa L. increases cytotoxic activity of Doxorubicin on MCF-7 breast cancer cell, Indonesian J Biotech 2009;14:1.
Antitumour
2008
Noiarsa P, Ruhirawat S, Otsuka H, Kanchanapoom T, Chemical constituents from Oldenlandia corymbosa L. of Thai origin. J Nat Med 2008;62(2):249-250.
2008
Chimkode R, Patil MB, Jalalpure S, Pasha TY, Sarkar S. A study of antipyretic activity of Hedyotis corymbosa Linn. in albino rats. Biomed 2008;3(3/4),234-238.
Antipyretic
2006
Sadasivan S, Latha PG, Sasikumar JM, Rajashekaran S, Shyamal S, Shine VJ. Hepatoprotective studies on Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;106(2):245-9
Hepatoprotective
2006
Banerjee A, Sane RT, Mangaonkar K, Shailajan S, Deshpande A, Gundi G. Quantitation of oleanolic acid in Oldenlandia corymbosa L. whole-plant powder by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. J Planar Chromatography 2006;19(107):68-72.
Hepatoprotective ; Antitumour ; Antiviral
1997
Yang JJ, Hsu HY, Ho YH, Lin CC. Comparative study on the immunocompetent activity of three different kinds of Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Cao, Hedyotis diffusa, H. corymbosa and Mollugo pentaphylla after sublethal whole body x-irradiation. Phytotherapy Res 1997;11(6):428-432.
Antitumour ; Radioprotector
1991
Otsuka H, Yoshimura K, Yamasaki K, Cantoria MC. Isolation of 10-O-acyl iridoid glucosides from a Philippine medicinal plant, Oldenlandia corymbosa L. (Rubiaceae). Chem Pharm Bull 1991;39:2049-2052.
Hepatoprotective