Phyllanthus urinaria
[Chamber Bitter, Leafflower]
DSC00930 (14)
DSC00928 (14)
DSC00927 (14)
DSC09085 (08)
P8130001 (22)
DSC00627 (14)
DSC00624 (14)

Close-up views:

P6240056 (22)
P8130006 (22)
P8130010 (22)
P6240061 (22)
P8130013 (22)


P8160046 (22)
P8160048 (22)
P1170048 (18)
P2120033 (17)
P1170038 (18)
P8150009 (22)

The variant with reddish fruits.

DSC08842 (08)
DSC07189 (09)
P5130138 (17)
DSC07190 (09)
DSC07192 (09)
DSC07193 (09)
P5130137 (17)

Close-up views:

P8130029 (22)
P7170004 (22)
P7170017 (22)
P8130048 (22)


P8130032 (22)
P8150016 (22)
Plant Notes

| Last updated: December 2022 |

Based on an updated classification published in 2022 [1], Phyllanthus urinaria is now being designated as a basionym of Emblica urinaria. Indeed, the Flora & Fauna Web by NParks had already migrated to the newly assigned name when I viewed the page on 31 December 2022.


[1] Bouman RW, Kebler PJA, Telford IRH, Bruhl JJ, Strijk JS, Saunders RMK, Esser H, Falcón-Hidalgo B, Van PC. A revised phylogenetic classification of tribe Phyllantheae (Phyllanthaceae). Phytotaxa 2022;540(1):1-100. | Read article |

Online Resources

| Plants of the World Online | CABI Digital Library | University of Florida | Flora of Pakistan |


[2022] Phan KS, Nguyen TM, To XT, Le TTH, Nguyen TT, Pham KD, Hoang PH, Dong TN, Dang DK, Phan THT, Mai TTT, Ha PT. Allium sativum@AgNPs and Phyllanthus urinaria@AgNPs: a comparative analysis for antibacterial application. RSC Adv 2022;12(55):35730-35743. | Read article |

[2022] Han N, Ye Q, Guo Z, Liang X. Metabolomics analysis of differential chemical constituents and α-glucosidase inhibiting activity of Phyllanthus urinaria L. root, stem, leaf and fruit. Nat Prod Res 2022:1-4. | Read abstract |

[2021] Saahene RO, Agbo E, Barnes P, Yahaya ES, Amoani B, Nuvor SV, Okyere P. A Review: Mechanism of Phyllanthus urinaria in Cancers-NF-κB, P13K/AKT, and MAPKs signaling activation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021;2021:4514342. | Read article |

[2021] Huang D, Yang B, Yao Y, Liao M, Zhang Y, Zeng Y, Zhang F, Wang N, Tong G. Autophagic inhibition of caveolin-1 by compound Phyllanthus urinaria L. activates ubiquitination and proteasome degradation of β-catenin to suppress metastasis of hepatitis B-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. Front Pharmacol 2021;12:659325. | Read article |

[2020] Nguyen DH, Lee JS, Park KD, Ching YC, Nguyen XT, Phan VHG, Hoang Thi TT. Green silver nanoparticles formed by Phyllanthus urinaria, Pouzolzia zeylanica, and Scoparia dulcis leaf extracts and the antifungal activity. Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020;10(3):542. | Read article |

[2019] Li Y, Jiang M, Li M, Chen Y, Wei C, Peng L, Liu X, Liu Z, Tong G, Zhou D, He J. Compound Phyllanthus urinaria L inhibits HBV-related HCC through HBx-SHH pathway axis inactivation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019;2019:1635837. | Read article |

[2018] Geethangili M, Ding ST. A review of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Phyllanthus urinaria L. Front Pharmacol 2018;9:1109. | Read article |

[2017] Guo Q, Zhang QQ, Chen JQ, Zhang W, Qiu HC, Zhang ZJ, Liu BM, Xu FG. Liver metabolomics study reveals protective function of Phyllanthus urinaria against CCl4-induced liver injury. Chin J Nat Med 2017;15(7):525-533. | Read abstract |

[2016] Huang ST, Huang CC, Sheen JM, Lin TK, Liao PL, Huang WL, Wang PW, Liou CW, Chuang JH. Phyllanthus urinaria's inhibition of human osteosarcoma xenografts growth in mice is associated with modulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion machinery. Am J Chin Med 2016;44(7):1507-1523. | Read abstract |

[2016] Chung CY, Liu CH, Burnouf T, Wang GH, Chang SP, Jassey A, Tai CJ, Tai CJ, Huang CJ, Richardson CD, Yen MH, Lin CC, Lin LT. Activity-based and fraction-guided analysis of Phyllanthus urinaria identifies loliolide as a potent inhibitor of hepatitis C virus entry. Antiviral Res 2016;130:58-68. | Read abstract |

[2015] Jung J, Kim NK, Park S, Shin HJ, Hwang SG, Kim K. Inhibitory effect of Phyllanthus urinaria L. extract on the replication of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus in vitro. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015;15:255. | Read article |

[2015] Wu Y, Lu Y, Li SY, Song YH, Hao Y, Wang Q. Extract from Phyllanthus urinaria L. inhibits hepatitis B virus replication and expression in hepatitis B virus transfection model in vitro. Chin J Integr Med 2015;21(12):938-943. | Read abstract |

[2015] Fan H, Zhang W, Wang J, Lv M, Zhang P, Zhang Z, Xu F. HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of four lignans from Phyllanthus urinaria L. in rat plasma and its application. Bioanalysis 2015;7(6):701-712. | Read abstract |

[2015] Yeo SG, Song JH, Hong EH, Lee BR, Kwon YS, Chang SY, Kim SH, Lee SW, Park JH, Ko HJ. Antiviral effects of Phyllanthus urinaria containing corilagin against human enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in vitro. Arch Pharm Res 2015;38(2):193-202. | Read abstract |

[2014] Huang ST, Bi KW, Kuo HM, Lin TK, Liao PL, Wang PW, Chuang JH, Liou CW. Phyllanthus urinaria induces mitochondrial dysfunction in human osteosarcoma 143B cells associated with modulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins. Mitochondrion 2014;17:22-33. | Read abstract |

[2014] Tong GD, Zhang X, Zhou DQ, Wei CS, He JS, Xiao CL, Liu XL, Zheng YJ, Chen SN, Tang HH. Efficacy of early treatment on 52 patients with preneoplastic hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma by compound Phyllanthus urinaria L. Chin J Integr Med 2014;20(4):263-271. | Read abstract |

[2013] Yuandani, Ilangkovan M, Jantan I, Mohamad HF, Husain K, Abdul Razak AF. Inhibitory effects of standardized extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus urinaria and their marker compounds on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:603634. | Read article |

[2013] Lu KH, Yang HW, Su CW, Lue KH, Yang SF, Hsieh YS. Phyllanthus urinaria suppresses human osteosarcoma cell invasion and migration by transcriptionally inhibiting u-PA via ERK and Akt signaling pathways. Food Chem Toxicol 2013;52:193-199. | Read abstract |

[2013] Wu C, Wei CS, Yu SF, Liu BL, Li YL, Ye WC, Tong GD, Zhou GX. Two new acetylated flavonoid glycosides from Phyllanthus urinaria. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2013;15(7):703-707. | Read abstract |

[2013] Lam PL, Kok SH, Ho YW, Wong RS, Cheng GY, Cheng CH, Lam KH, Gambari R, Lee KK, Chui CH. A novel green gelatin-agar microencapsulation system with P. urinaria as an improved anti-A. niger model. Carbohydr Polym 2013;92(1):877-80. | Read abstract |

[2013] Wong VW, Wong GL, Chan AW, Chu WC, Choi PC, Chim AM, Yiu KK, Yu J, Chan FK, Chan HL. Treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with Phyllanthus urinaria: a randomized trial. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;28(1):57-62. | Read abstract |

[2012] Wu HY, Lin TK, Kuo HM, Huang YL, Liou CW, Wang PW, Chuang JH, Huang ST. Phyllanthus urinaria Induces Apoptosis in human osteosarcoma 143B cells via activation of Fas/FasL- and mitochondria-mediated pathways. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;2012:925824. | Read article |

[2012] Tseng HH, Chen PN, Kuo WH, Wang JW, Chu SC, Hsieh YS. Antimetastatic potentials of Phyllanthus urinaria L on A549 and Lewis lung carcinoma cells via repression of matrix-degrading proteases. Integr Cancer Ther 2012;11(3):267-278. | Read article |

[2012] Gunawan-Puteri MD, Kato E, Kawabata J. α-Amylase inhibitors from an Indonesian medicinal herb, Phyllanthus urinaria. J Sci Food Agric 2012;92(3):606-609. | Read abstract |

[2011] Mahdi ES, Noor AM, Sakeena MH, Abdullah GZ, Abdulkarim MF, Sattar MA. Formulation and in vitro release evaluation of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters-based nanoemulsion delivery system for 30% ethanolic dried extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria for skin antiaging. Int J Nanomedicine 2011;6:2499-2512. | Read article |

[2011] Huang ST, Wang CY, Yang RC, Wu HT, Yang SH, Cheng YC, Pang JH. Ellagic acid, the active compound of Phyllanthus urinaria, exerts in vivo anti-angiogenic effect and inhibits MMP-2 activity. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:215035. | Read article |

[2011] Cheng HY, Yang CM, Lin TC, Lin LT, Chiang LC, Lin CC. Excoecarianin, isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria Linnea, inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 infection through inactivation of viral particles. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:259103. | Read article |

[2010] Huang ST, Pang JH, Yang RC. Anti-cancer effects of Phyllanthus urinaria and relevant mechanisms. Chang Gung Med J 2010;33(5):477-487. | Read article |

[2010] Chudapongse N, Kamkhunthod M, Poompachee K. Effects of Phyllanthus urinaria extract on HepG2 cell viability and oxidative phosphorylation by isolated rat liver mitochondria. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;130(2):315-319. | Read abstract |

[2009] Huang ST, Wang CY, Yang RC, Chu CJ, Wu HT, Pang JH. Phyllanthus urinaria increases apoptosis and reduces telomerase activity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Forsch Komplementmed 2009;16(1):34-40. | Read abstract |

[2009] Hau DK, Gambari R, Wong RS, Yuen MC, Cheng GY, Tong CS, Zhu GY, Leung AK, Lai PB, Lau FY, Chan AK, Wong WY, Kok SH, Cheng CH, Kan CW, Chan AS, Chui CH, Tang JC, Fong DW. Phyllanthus urinaria extract attenuates acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity: involvement of cytochrome P450 CYP2E1. Phytomedicine 2009;16(8):751-760. | Read abstract |

[2009] Chularojmontri L, Ihara Y, Muroi E, Goto S, Kondo T, Wattanapitayakul SK. Cytoprotective role of Phyllanthus urinaria L. and glutathione-S transferase Pi in doxorubicin-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells. J Med Assoc Thai 2009;92 Suppl 3:S43-51. | Read abstract |

[2008] Lai CH, Fang SH, Rao YK, Geethangili M, Tang CH, Lin YJ, Hung CH, Wang WC, Tzeng YM. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation in human gastric epithelial AGS cells by Phyllanthus urinaria extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;118(3):522-526. | Read abstract |

[2008] Lin SY, Wang CC, Lu YL, Wu WC, Hou WC. Antioxidant, anti-semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, and anti-hypertensive activities of geraniin isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46(7):2485-2492. | Read abstract |

[2008] Fang SH, Rao YK, Tzeng YM. Anti-oxidant and inflammatory mediator's growth inhibitory effects of compounds isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;116(2):333-340. | Read abstract |

[2008] Shen B, Yu J, Wang S, Chu ES, Wong VW, Zhou X, Lin G, Sung JJ, Chan HL. Phyllanthus urinaria ameliorates the severity of nutritional steatohepatitis both in vitro and in vivo. Hepatology 2008;47(2):473-483. | Read abstract |

[2007] Yang CM, Cheng HY, Lin TC, Chiang LC, Lin CC. The in vitro activity of geraniin and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infection. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;110(3):555-558. | Read abstract |

[2007] Yang CM, Cheng HY, Lin TC, Chiang LC, Lin CC. Hippomanin A from acetone extract of Phyllanthus urinaria inhibited HSV-2 but not HSV-1 infection in vitro. Phytother Res 2007;21(12):1182-1186. | Read abstract |

[2007] Xu M, Zha ZJ, Qin XL, Zhang XL, Yang CR, Zhang YJ. Phenolic antioxidants from the whole plant of Phyllanthus urinaria. Chem Biodivers 2007;4(9):2246-2252. | Read abstract |

[2006] Huang ST, Yang RC, Lee PN, Yang SH, Liao SK, Chen TY, Pang JH. Anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of Phyllanthus urinaria in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma. Int Immunopharmacol 2006;6(6):870-879. | Read abstract |

[2005] Chularojmontri L, Wattanapitayakul SK, Herunsalee A, Charuchongkolwongse S, Niumsakul S, Srichairat S. Antioxidative and cardioprotective effects of Phyllanthus urinaria L. on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28(7):1165-1171. | Read article |

[2005] Yang CM, Cheng HY, Lin TC, Chiang LC, Lin CC. Acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria inhibit HSV-2 infection in vitro. Antiviral Res 2005;67(1):24-30. | Read abstract |

[2005] Wang CY, Lee SS. Analysis and identification of lignans in Phyllanthus urinaria by HPLC-SPE-NMR. Phytochem Anal 2005;16(2):120-126. | Read abstract |

[2004] Huang ST, Yang RC, Chen MY, Pang JH. Phyllanthus urinaria induces the Fas receptor/ligand expression and ceramide-mediated apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Life Sci 2004;75(3):339-351. | Read abstract |

[2004] Huang ST, Yang RC, Pang JH. Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus urinaria induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. Am J Chin Med 2004;32(2):175-183. | Read abstract |

[2004] Zhang LZ, Guo YJ, Tu GZ, Guo WB, Miao F. Isolation and identification of a novel ellagitannin from Phyllanthus urinaria L. Yao Xue Xue Bao 2004;39(2):119-122. | Read abstract |

[2003] Huang ST, Yang RC, Yang LJ, Lee PN, Pang JH. Phyllanthus urinaria triggers the apoptosis and Bcl-2 down-regulation in Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Life Sci 2003;72(15):1705-1716. | Read abstract |

[2003] Bharali R, Tabassum J, Azad MR. Chemopreventive action of Phyllanthus urinaria Linn on DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 2003;41(11):1325-1328. | Read abstract |

[2003] Chang CC, Lien YC, Liu KC, Lee SS. Lignans from Phyllanthus urinaria. Phytochemistry. 2003 Aug;63(7):825-833. | Read abstract |

[2002] Jikai L, Yue H, Henkel T, Weber K. One step purification of corilagin and ellagic acid from Phyllanthus urinaria using high-speed countercurrent chromatography. Phytochem Anal 2002;13(1):1-3. | Read abstract |

[1996] Paulino N, Cechinel-Filho V, Yunes RA, Calixto JB. The relaxant effect of extract of Phyllanthus urinaria in the guinea-pig isolated trachea. Evidence for involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. J Pharm Pharmacol 1996;48(11):1158-1163. | Read abstract |

[1996] Paulino N, Cechinel Filho V, Pizzolatti MG, Yunes RA, Calixto JB. Mechanisms involved in the contractile responses induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of Phyllanthus urinaria on the guinea pig isolated trachea: evidence for participation of tachykinins and influx of extracellular Ca2+ sensitive to ruthenium red. Gen Pharmacol 1996;27(5):795-802. | Read abstract |

[1995] Dias MA, Campos AH, Cechinel Filho V, Yunes RA, Calixto JB. Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the contractile response induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of Phyllanthus urinaria in the guinea-pig urinary bladder in-vitro. J Pharm Pharmacol 1995;47(10):846-851. | Read abstract |

[1995] Satyan KS, Prakash A, Singh RP, Srivastava RS. Phthalic acid bis-ester and other phytoconstituents of Phyllanthus urinaria. Planta Med 1995;61(3):293-294. | Read abstract |

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